Corporate Social Responsibility and Reciprocity Relations during Covid-19


  • Christian Raniero
  • Giuseppe Modarelli



Covid-19, Leadership, Environmental Collapse, Reciprocity, Corporate Social Responsibility, Global Markets


This research work opens an interpretative view on corporate social responsibility (CSR) during an unexpected emergency reality and latent environmental collapse as a strategy to survive. The investigation approach follows the lines of a field analysis survey based on 288 consumers before (n=80) and during the spread of Covid-19 (n=208). The study aims to provide paradigms and interpretations of evidence-based CSR as a balanced reciprocity relationship in coping emergencies; this necessarily moved the authors to investigate the relationship transversally, examining the role of budgeting and its repercussions on well-being by hierarchical leadership. Specifically, the authors investigate the existence of possible niches of actions based on cooperative and responsible operations during emergencies.




How to Cite

Raniero, C., & Modarelli, G. (2021). Corporate Social Responsibility and Reciprocity Relations during Covid-19. Symphonya. Emerging Issues in Management, (2), 118–141.